Human chorionic gonadotropin Pharmacodynamics
Chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a gonadotropin secreted by placental
trophoblast cells and is present in the urine and blood of pregnant women. The
secretion is very fast in the first trimester, and the secretion peaks at 8-10
weeks of pregnancy. HCG can be dissociated into two subunits, α and β, and each
subunit contains a side chain composed of several sugar molecules. The α subunit
has a molecular weight of 14500-18000 and a total of 89-92 amino acids. Its
sequence is very similar to the glycoprotein hormones secreted by the pituitary
gland, such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
The molecular weight of the β subunit is 22200-39000, with 145-147 amino acids.
The first 110 or so amino acids are basically the same as LH, but the
arrangement of the last few amino acids is different, and there are 28-32 amino
acid fragments that are unique to HCG. Antigenic and immunologically active.
biological activity of HCG is relatively complex. When it is decomposed into two
independent subunits, α and β, it has no biological activity, and only the two
subunits are combined to have activity. Since the α subunit of HCG and LH are
the same, and the β subunit is also very similar, the biological activities are
similar. At present, there is no LH preparation, and HCG is used clinically to
replace LH, which can be used as a substitute for endogenous LH in the luteal
Chorionic gonadotropin is very similar to LH secreted by the pituitary
gland, while FSH has little effect and has strong antiestrogen and weak
estrogenic activity. This drug can stimulate the gonadal activity, maintain and
promote the luteal function in women, make the corpus luteum synthesize
progesterone, and combined with the urinary gonadotropin with FSH component can
promote the formation and maturation of follicles, and can simulate the
physiological LH peak and trigger the ovulation. For men, this drug has the
effect of promoting interstitial cytokines, which can promote the function of
seminiferous tubules, especially the activity of testicular interstitial cells,
so that they can produce androgens, and promote the development and maturation
of sexual organs and male secondary sexual characteristics. , promote testicular
descent, and promote sperm production.
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